Focus particles, secondary meanings, and Lexical Resource Semantics: The case of Japanese 'shika'
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Japanese has two exclusive particles shika and dake. Although traditionally, both particles were considered to be exclusive particles like only, a recent proposal claims that shika is an exceptive particle like everyone except to account for the necessary co-occurrence of the negative suffix na and shika. We show that this negative suffix lacks two critical semantic properties of ordinary logical negation: It is not downward entailing, nor does it license negative polarity items. We show that both shika and dake are exclusive particles, but that shika encodes an additional secondary meaning. The negative suffix only contributes to the sentence’s secondary meaning when it co-occurs with shika. We present an HPSG and LRS analysis that models the co-occurrence of shika and the negative suffix na, and their contribution to the sentence’s secondary meaning.