Linking from the outside in
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Two issues divide theories of argument structure: how many macro-roles are necessary, and how much of subcategorization is semantically determined? Current semantically-based theories of linking often assume that two macro-roles are needed (Foley and Van Valin, 1984; Dowty, 1991), and that lexical semantic properties alone suffice to determine subcategorization (Pinker, 1989). In this paper, we first suggest that only one generalized role -- "actor" -- is needed to state linking constraints. Instead of rules referring to other roles, we invoke an independently motivated relationship of one situation being part of another, represented by the embedding of one semantic structure within another.