Psychometric characteristics of the Teacher Efficacy Scale: Factor structure, reliability, and concurrent validity
Flood, Jillian Nicole
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Teacher self-efficacy has been identified as an important contributor to the educational achievement of students. Grounded in social learning theory, several self-report questionnaires have been developed to assess the construct of teacher self-efficacy. A measure of particular interest in the present study was the widely used Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES). Despite the widespread use of the TES, questions have been raised about the factor structure and item content of the scale. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the TES. Two subsamples of teachers from urban districts were combined to yield a total sample of 219 teachers from western New York State. All of these teachers completed the Teacher Efficacy Scales (TES). Of the total sample, 47 teachers also completed the Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), Bandura's Teacher Efficacy Scale (BTES), and the Responsibility for Student Achievement Questionnaire (RSA) to help assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the TES. Approximately four to eight weeks after initially completing the TES, forty teachers completed the TES a second time to help assess the temporal stability of the instrument. A principal axis common factor analysis was conducted on the 30 items of the TES using responses from the overall sample of 219 teachers. The Kaiser criterion, scree plot, and parallel analysis were used to aid in the initial extraction of the factors. A two factor solution was ultimately decided upon as most interpretable. Examination of the oblique rotation suggested that the two factors were not correlated. Therefore, a more parsimonious orthogonal rotation was utilized for final interpretation. The two factor solution accounted for 68.79% of the common variance. Internal consistency reliabilities for the two TES factors were found to be reasonable and consistent with previous research. However, four to eight week test-retest reliability estimates for the two factors (Personal Teaching Efficacy [PTE] and General Teaching Efficacy [GTE]) of the TES were found to be lower than the minimum standard of .70. The extent to which the PTE subscale of the TES yielded moderate to high correlations with the TSES scores suggested clear convergent validity evidence for the PTE factor. The lack of a correlation between the GTE and PTE factors, as well as the lack of substantive correlations between the GTE and TSES scores provided evidence of discriminant validity for both PTE and GTE. The significant, but relatively lower correlations between the TES subscale scores and the RSA scores provided both convergent and divergent evidence. Unexpectedly, the overall composite score for the BTES did not correlate significantly with the PTE scale of the TES and showed only a low to moderate negative correlation with the GTE scales of the TES. The meaning of these results for the TES and implications for future research on teacher self-efficacy scales is discussed.