Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Thai versions of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz and Kogan's Attitude Toward Old People in Thai adolescents
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Background. Thailand faces a disproportionately large older adult population, who will be cared for by the youth of today. Negative attitudes and misconceptions can make adolescents more fearful and uncomfortable relating to older adults. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to translate Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ-I) and Kogan's Attitudes Toward Old People (OP) Scale into Thai. Specifically, this study focused on the psychometrics of the Thai versions of Palmore's FAQ-I and Kogan's OP. Conceptual framework. There are two theories employed in the literature that explain how knowledge and attitudes are formulated: the Tripartite theory (Rosenberg & Hovland, 1960) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). The components of these theories are utilized to form the conceptual framework for this study. Methods. This study was carried out in three phases. Phase 1 tested the equivalence of translation, which was established by the process of translation and back-translation and by using percentage agreement of rating responses and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) statistics to test similarity of language and interpretation. Phase 2 tested the reliability and validity of the Thai versions of Palmore's FAQ-I and Kogan's OP. Three Thai experts in geriatrics rated the relevance of the instruments for content validity. A pilot study was conducted on 10 twelfth grade students in Chiang-Mai to test readability and understandability. Findings were used to modify the Thai versions of Palmore's FAQ-I and Kogan's OP. In addition, another sample consisting of 428 high school (grade 12) students was selected. Participants were a random selection of 5 classrooms from 14 classrooms in each school district of Chaing-Mai in the northern region and Nakhon-Ratchasima in the northeastern. Students ranged in age from 16 to 19. The data were used to examine the reliability and validity of Palmore's FAQ-I and Kogan's OP. Phase 3 tested the reliability and validity of the revised Thai versions of Palmore's FAQ-I and Kogan's OP. Both revised instruments were administered two weeks apart to 70 high school (grade 12) students in Chaing-Mai. Results. The similarity of language was 0.94 and similarity of interpretation was 0.95 for Palmore's FAQ-I. Additionally, the similarity of language and interpretation were 0.93 and 0.94 respectively for Kogan's OP. The content validity index was 0.97 for Palmore's FAQ-I and 0.95 for Kogan's OP scale. In phase 2 the test-retest reliability of the Thai version of Palmore's FAQ-I was low (0.45) and Kogan's OP was 0.64. An internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.504 for Palmore's FAQ-I and .64 for Kogan's OP. Construct validity was determined by comparison of attitude scores of students who have contact with older adults and those who do not. Kogan's OP positive statements were able to differentiate students who have contact with older adults from those who do not. Discriminant validity analysis revealed no or negligible correlation between Palmore's FAQ-I and Kogan's OP. Exploratory factor analysis indicates that Palmore's FAQ-I consisted of 10 factors and Kogan's OP consisted of 5 factors. The results of phase 2 indicated that both instruments were not reliable and valid for Thai adolescents. The Thai version of Palmore's FAQ-I was revised for 6 items that had a low reliability and validity. Kogan's OP was revised by using only positive items that had a good reliability and validity. Both revised instruments were administered again to test reliability and validity. In phase 3 the test-retest reliability coefficient for the revised Thai version of Palmore's FAQ-I was good (0.76) but was not acceptable (0.68) for the revised Thai version of Kogan's OP. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable (0.66) for Palmore's FAQ-I and 0.73 for Kogan's OP. The results indicated no significant difference in the revised Thai version of Kogan's OP scores between students who have contact with older adults in their families and in general. The results of phase 3 indicated that the revised Thai version of Palmore's FAQ-I was indicative of good reliability and validity. Reliability and validity of the revised Kogan's OP using only positive items was not strong. Conclusions. These findings suggest that Palmore's FAQ-I is reliable and valid for Thai students and also requires no special training for users. This instrument also allow nurse educators and high school teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase knowledge about older adults. Future research aimed at measuring a change in knowledge before and after education programs on aging by using Palmore's FAQ-I is recommended. Additionally, using only positive statements on the revised Kogan's OP is not advised. The Thai version of Kogan's OP (17 matched pairs) should be revised for all negative items that had very poor reliability and validity. The revised Thai version of Kogan's OP must then be tested for reliability and validity.