Describing the process of meaningful change: Seneca stories of becoming smoke free
Haring, Rodney C.
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The use of recreational or commercial tobacco products (nonceremonial or sacred) in North American Indian populations is alarmingly high. A qualitative study using grounded theory and guided by social work principles was used to discover the method, strategies, and process 16 members from the Seneca Nation, Allegany and Cattaraugus Indian Reservations, New York, United States, used when they quit smoking. Of the 16 Native American tribal members, 11 were female and 5 were male. The Seneca members ranged from 25 to 82 years of age. One hundred percent of the participants involved with the project were enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. A five-step process was unveiled. These included becoming aware, internalizing realizations, considering health, ''set in mind'' to quit, and reflecting. Also of importance were the cultural and traditional knowledge that blanketed the entire process. The theory emerging from the project was named healthy mind-setting . The results provide Seneca communities with meaningful data that are useful for tribal health centers, inform culturally relevant intervention and theory development, and guide human service providers working with Seneca recreational tobacco users. Further, these results provide a framework that may have significant relevance with indigenous populations worldwide.