The relation of adipokines and adiponectin to change in weight or fat distribution over a six-year prospective study
Skeps, Raymond Philip
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Introduction . Obesity has become a leading health issue throughout the world. Obesity can be linked to interactions between different aspects of human physiology such as gender, genetics, diet, metabolism, and effects from physical activity. Moreover, it is thought that cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6 activate the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis. Weight change and features of the metabolic syndrome may occur if this activation is followed by hyper-cortisolemia and sympathetic activation. This drives the research to understand the effect of biomarkers such as C Reactive Protein (CRP), InterLeukin 6 (IL-6), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and adiponectin on change of weight or fat distribution. Methods . The current 6-year prospective study examined individuals from Erie or Niagara counties in western New York that participated in the Western New York Health Study (WNYHS) and were re-examined through participation in Discovering Diabetes in Western New York (DDNY). Change in weight or in fat distribution was measured by weight (LBS) and abdominal height (cm). Results . After performing an adjusted regression model among women who were former or current smokers there was a relationship found between HOMA-IR levels and a >5% gain in abdominal height or weight after adjustment for age, education, and ethnicity (OR=1.02, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05). After performing an adjusted regression model on females who have never smoked, a relationship was found separately for adiponectin, PAI-1, and a >5% loss in abdominal height after adjustment for age, education, ethnicity ( Adiponectin OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) ( PAI-1 OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.12). This relationship was upheld after adjustments were performed for insulin resistance ( Adiponectin OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) ( PAI-1 OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01, 1.11). Unlike PAI-1 the hormone adiponectin was also found to have an association with >5% gain in abdominal height even after adjustments were made for age, education, ethnicity, and insulin resistance ( Adiponectin OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.03, 1.29). All other markers had no significant relationships with a >5% gain or loss in weight or abdominal height among any sex or smoking status. Conclusions . The current analysis provides further evidence PAI-1, adiponectin, and HOMA-IR levels can possibly be a precursor to weight change or fat distribution for females depending on their smoking status. This could be linked to the defects of the hypothalamus and its control of appetite from a direct influence of these markers. The association expected with weight gain and some of the selected adipokines wasn't found because of a possible association with the consequences of weight gain from diabetes. However, the current analysis did not evaluate the possible association because people with diabetes are excluded from the current analysis. The results imply that PAI-1, adiponectin, and HOMA-IR levels may possibly be used as an early indicator for future change in weight or fat distribution and may be useful in aiding medical professionals for determining the presence of sub-clinical diseases.