The association between acute myeloid leukemia and body mass index in an adult population
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Obesity has been associated with a number of chronic medical conditions. Data from a limited number of studies have suggested that BMI (body mass index) may be implicated in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults. Few studies have specifically examined the relationship between AML and BMI; previous findings from a both a single case-control and cohort study detected a significantly elevated risk of AML among overweight and obese individuals. The present study is a hospital based case-control study consisting of patients who sought treatment from Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Cases were identified from RPCI tumor registry and diagnostic index. Eligible cases were 18 years or older, diagnosed with AML between 1982 and 1998 with no previous history of malignancy. Controls were randomly selected from a pool of individuals treated at RPCI for various non-cancerous conditions. Eligible controls had the same criteria as cases except for the diagnosis of AML. Four control patients were selected for each case matched on age, in 5-year strata and gender. The instrument used for data collection in this study was the Patient Epidemiology Data System (PEDS). PEDS is a self-reported epidemiological questionnaire offered to all newly admitted patients at RCPI. In this analysis adiposity was measured using body mass index (BMI=kg/m 2 ); to assess the strength of association, two categories of BMI were utilized, less than 25 (average weight) and a BMI of greater than or equal to 25 (overweight and obese). Sub-analysis was also carried out on gender, smoking status and age. After adjustment the results of this study did not show an increase in risk of acute myeloid leukemia among our total population of individuals at a higher BMI category (OR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.57 - 1.40). Overall, the sub-group analysis on gender, smoking status (non, former and current smoker) and age failed to show a relationship between acute myeloid leukemia and body mass index. These results do not support the hypothesis that individuals with a body mass greater than or equal to 25 have a greater probability of developing acute myeloid leukemia, therefore further research on this topic is warranted.