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dc.contributor.authorEmans, Rebecca Jane
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-21T20:17:02Z
dc.date.available2016-03-21T20:17:02Z
dc.date.issued2007
dc.identifier.other304765957
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10477/43152
dc.description.abstractThis dissertation is a study of tribalization, ethnic formation, and migration during the late Late Woodland (approximately AD 1250 to 1400) of the Allegheny Plateau region of southwestern New York. Current archaeological interpretation of the region (which includes Chautauqua, Cattaraugus, Allegany, and southern Erie counties) is that it was occupied during the early Late Woodland, but at some point the region was depopulated by emigration. Two models of ethnogenesis are presented for the interpretation of cultural developments in the region. Both of these models apply to the ethnogenetic formation of egalitarian societies, or tribes, within a context devoid of significantly more complex societies. Both models begin with a dramatic change which forces migration so that two or more egalitarian societies are suddenly encountering one another. The differences in the two models relate to how each group responds to the presence of the other group(s), either through cooperative multi-group empowerment, or through competitive self-empowerment. The Cooperation Model emphasizes ethnogenesis through cooperation, while the Competition Model is ethnogenesis through competition. Both models also result in the formation of a new ethnic group. These models are then applied to the Late Woodland cultural developments of southwestern New York. From about AD 1250 to 1300, the region experienced the inward migration of two cultural groups. First was the immigration of the Monongahelan group, around AD 1250, and then the introduction of Ontario Iroquois, around AD 1300. Concomitant with the introduction of new peoples and cultural materials was the intensification of boundary arbitration and negotiations for power and influence. This context of migration, tribalization, and ethnic formation resulted in the ethnogenesis of a new cultural group, involving dynamic changes in the ideological, social, and technological spheres of these societies. Technological changes occurred not only in pottery and tools, but also site locations and house forms. Social and ideological changes are evidenced by both pottery styles, and well as the predominance of Iroquoian style smoking pipes, which relate closely to rituals and political alliance formation. The heterarchical nature of the tribes which emerged in the fourteenth century enabled its members to maximize flexibility in decision making and alliance formation, which may have contributed to the subsequent abandonment of the region. Therefore, rather than abandoning the region due to environmental constraints, the Allegheny Plateau would have been relegated to a territorial zone for resource procurement, in favor of individual security, cooperation, and economic and political gain which would be found in larger villages with greater access to resources and contacts. Analytical procedures for this dissertation include the identification of archaeological correlates of tribalization, ethnic formation, and migration. These correlates are applied to archaeological sites and artifacts from the region. Three new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates acquired for the sites confirmed prior radiocarbon dates. Previous interpretation of the radiocarbon dates from these sites was that they were too early to represent the occupations, and that the sites were occupied into the sixteenth century. However, the new AMS dates support the earlier radiocarbon analysis results. Therefore, these sites were occupied generally between AD 1250 and 1400, although a minority of artifacts suggests possible later short-term occupations during the sixteenth century. Settlement pattern analysis and site characteristics include the identification of changes in site locations over time, and differences site forms, as well as hearth, pit, and postmold features. Artifact analysis includes the identification of time-markers for pottery attributes, analysis of projectile points, smoking pipes, and pottery. In addition is the use of pottery type seriation to understand the complex multi-component sites included in this study. Statistical procedures include summary statistics, Pearson's correlations, and Brainerd-Robinson's coefficients of agreement using the frequencies of pottery types. A TwoStep cluster analysis of the triangular projectile points is also used to clarify the occupations of this region. This dissertation shows that the Allegheny Plateau was an area of active settlement by agricultural villagers. These villagers underwent similar cultural changes in settlement patterns as other parts of New York, as well as concomitant developments in social structure (specifically the formation into tribes), and ethnic formation. In addition to contributing to the understanding of the culture history and development of the region, this dissertation demonstrates that archaeologists are failing to recognize important areas of settlement in New York. Rather than writing-off the plateau as "hunting territories", archaeologists should be investigating the area, and recognizing the potential of the region. Finally, this dissertation contributes to the field of archaeology by presenting two models of ethnogenesis within a context of migration, tribalization, boundary maintenance and arbitration, and other phenomena of the interaction of multiple cultural groups. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
dc.languageEnglish
dc.subjectSocial sciences
dc.subjectTribalization
dc.subjectEthnic formation
dc.subjectMigration
dc.subjectAllegheny Plateau
dc.subjectNew York
dc.titleTribalization, ethnic formation, and migration on the Allegheny Plateau of southwestern New York
dc.typeDissertation/Thesis


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