Effect of the Bimler functional appliance treatment on Class III patients
Makhsida, Mhd Hazem
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The effect of the Bimler functional appliance on the treatment of Class III malocclusion is unknown as no previous study has evaluated the effect of this appliance on Class III patients. Indeed, there are very few, if any, studies that have reported the effect of the functional appliances on Class III malocclusions. It was thus the goal of this study to investigate the changes that results from the treatment of Class III patients with the type C Bimler appliance. Materials and methods. Thirty patients with Class III malocclusion (12 males and 18 females) were included in this study. The mean age of the subjects was nine years and eight months at the beginning of the treatment. These patients were treated by Bimler with his type C functional appliance. The mean treatment period was two years and three months. The lateral cephalometric radiographs used in this study were analyzed at the start of treatment (T1) and at the end of the treatment (T2). Eight linear and six angular measurements were made to evaluate the changes achieved by the Bimler type C functional appliance. The Student's and paired t-test were used to analyze the data collected in this study. Results. For no measurement was there a statistically significant difference (p=0.05) between the males and the females. As a result, the separating by gender was abandoned, and the male and female treatment groups were combined to provide 30 subjects. The most significant changes observed were three angular measurements (ANB, Upper incisor to SN, IMPA) and seven linear measurements (Co-A, Co-Gn, Pg-Na perpendicular, ANS-Me, Wits, Overjet, Lower incisor to APo) (p<0.0001). No significant change was observed in the mean value of one of the linear measurement (A-Na perpendicular). Favorable skeletal and dentoalveolar effects were observed. These included: (a) a backward rotation of the mandible combined with an increase in the lower facial height, (b) favorable changes in incisor overjet resulted mainly from proclination of the upper incisors rather than from retroclinations of the lower incisors. No significant effect on the maxillary skeletal structures was observed. Conclusion. The Bimler type C appliance decreases the severity of Class III malocclusion. This appliance might be not suitable, however, for treating Class III patients with leptofacial structures and anterior openbites.