The effects of English Language Learning (ELL) factors on the White-Asian academic achievment gap: An analysis of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in math and reading
Kim, Ja Young
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This study reveals that the White and Asian achievement gap in the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in math and reading might be misleading since NAEP does not take into account English Language Learning (ELL) factors when reporting the racial gap. The present study examines the effects of ELL factors, identified herein as an ELL composition effect and an ELL gap effect on the White and Asian achievement gap, using National, California and Minnesota NAEP data. The study finds that the ELL factors serve as a mediator for the relation between race and academic achievement. In the nation and in California, the ELL composition effect and the ELL gap effect not only increase the math and reading academic achievement gap between White and Asian students, but also change the direction of the gap. At the same, the ELL related factors decreased the math and reading achievement gap between White and Asian students in Minnesota. Implications of these findings for NAEP data are to make race gaps both more accurate and reliable. These findings are discussed.