Nano calcium sulfate scaffolds for periodontal tissue engineering: Cell-material interaction in vitro studies
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Objective . Nanotechnology offers exciting alternatives to traditional scaffolds. Nano calcium sulfate with particles in the range of 10-100 nanometer, will have enhanced physical properties such as high surface area for growth factor adsorption with the potential for controlling the rate of release of the adsorbed material as well as superior mechanical strength for optimal osteoconductivity and resistance to fractures. Addition of macro pores using alginate should not only enhance cell migration, it should also help in transport issues related to oxygen and nutrient delivery, waste removal and protein transport. Our overall goal was to study the safety and efficiency of nano calcium sulfate based scaffolds for periodontal tissue engineering. Methods . HPDL cells were seeded on the scaffolds and SEM micrographs were taken after a culture of 12 hours and 3 days. The MTT assay was done to assess the cell viability. Adhesion and proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells was compared between CAPSET ® (calcium sulfate) and nano calcium sulfate using the MTT assay and the 3 H thymidine assay. Cell-material interaction was studied for scaffolds with different proportions of alginate and compared to nano calcium sulfate scaffold using SEM and the MTT assay. Results. Initial SEM micrographs after 12 hours show that HPDL cells do attach to nano calcium sulfate scaffolds. After 3 days, cells exhibited a spindle shape or polygonal shape and the pseudopodia of cells became far longer and extended in different directions. The MTT assay results after 3 days culture confirmed that PDL cells do adhere to nano calcium sulfate samples and proliferate. The MTT assay and 3 H thymidine assay revealed that CAPSET ® and nano calcium sulfate scaffolds exhibited similar levels of cell proliferation. Comparison of the MTT assay with and without centrifuge showed that nano calcium sulfate undergoes a faster structural deformation, compared to that of CAPSET ® . SEM micrographs of different proportions of alginate and nano calcium sulfate show cells attached to 95:5 and 90:10. Cell proliferation rate was found to be highest for the 95:5 scaffold. Conclusion . Nano sized calcium sulfate + alginate composite scaffolds may provide a more efficient scaffold than nano sized calcium sulfate alone or standard sized calcium sulfate (CAPSET ® scaffolds for periodontal tissue engineering.