How many counselors are philosophical libertarians?
Yake, Andrew Philip
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In contrast to the implications of Wilks (2003), an online survey of 162 counselors found that (a) over half of these counselors provided item responses incompatible with libertarianism, (b) comparatively libertarian counselors did not differ in confidence from less libertarian counselors, and (c) counselors appear to hold diverse beliefs about free will. The Free Will-Determinism scale (FWD) (W. Viney, McIntyre, & Viney, 1984) was used to measure libertarianism. The Counselor Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) (Larson, Suzuki, Gillespie, Potenza, & et al., 1992) was used to measure counseling self-efficacy as a proxy for counselor confidence. The Empathic Concern (EC) scale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) (Davis, 1983) was used to measure trait affective empathy as an exploratory variable. It was concluded that despite the claims of Wilks (2003) counseling theory and practice are probably not threateningly out of phase with human perceptions of free will. Additional key concepts included the following: free will as origination (which Wilks (2003) referred to as indeterminate free will), free will as voluntariness, compatibilism, incompatibilism, determinism, and counselor beliefs.