Single response to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading
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A review of liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and its effects on pile foundations has been presented. A review of currently available methods of analysis for prediction of bending moments and deflections of a single pile subjected to lateral spreading has also been conducted. The methods included in this study are: (a) Deformation method, (b) Japanese Road Association (JRA) method, (c) Limit Equilibrium method, (d) Hybrid force-deformation imposed method, and (e) Finite element method. Numerical analyses were conducted on single piles subjected to lateral spreading, using ABAQUS, based on the first four methods indicated above. The numerical analyses involved three different soil-pile configurations: (a) a two-layer soil profile without a non-liquefiable soil crust, (b) a three-layer soil profile with a non-liquefiable soil crust underlain by liquefiable soil over a dense sand, and (c) a three-layer soil profile like that of case (b) with a lateral deformation constraint at the pile head. The results were compared with a limited number of centrifuge data on single piles. The purpose was to calibrate these methods and assess their ability to capture the measured moment and deflection responses of single piles. The limit equilibrium method and the deformation-imposed method predicted the centrifuge data very well. The JRA method overpredicted both moments and pile deflections by as much as four times. Based on deformation imposed method, parametric analyses were also conducted to study the influence of: (i) the crust thickness, (ii) the liquefied layer thickness, (iii) the non-liquefied bottom layer thickness, (iv) the pile diameter, and (v) the lateral pile head deflection constraint, on pile response subjected to lateral displacements induced by soil liquefaction. The effects of these parameters on single pile response are presented.