Automated high resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscopy medical systems
Keleshis, Christos M.
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The increased demand for improved quality in medical images due to the rapid advances in the field of endovascular image guided interventions (EIGI), motivated this work to deal with the design, construction and automation of higher resolution micro-angiographic and fluoroscopic x-ray medical systems. The factors which improve the quality of fluoroscopic and angiographic images are high spatial resolution, increased sensitivity of the detectors, negligible lag, wide dynamic range and high frame rates. The improved but at the same time more complex EIGIs require a system which implements all the improving image quality factors along with automation of the radiographic and fluoroscopic procedures. The control, acquisition, processing and image display system (CAPIDS) which has been designed and built to meet the above specifications is presented in this dissertation. CAPIDS is mainly used to control the novel Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopy (MAF) detector which has been designed and built by our group at Toshiba Stroke Research Center of University at Buffalo. The high-sensitivity, region-of-interest (ROI) MAF detector which consists of a CsI(Tl) input phosphor, a dual stage micro-channel plate Light Image Intensifier (LII) coupled to a fiber optic taper (FOT) and a fast frame rate, progressive scan, frame-transfer CCD camera provides high-resolution images of 1k x 1k size and spatial resolution greater than 8 lp/mm. In addition to the control of the MAF detector, CAPIDS offers real time acquisition, processing and display of the high-resolution images in a unique user-friendly graphical interface. Furthermore, CAPIDS has been designed in such a way that allows it to be used with newer high-resolution detectors such as the ROI Solid State X-ray Image Intensifier (SSXII) detector and the larger field-of-view, array-based SSXII which both, have also been designed by our group. As a result, the use of CAPIDS along with the novel x-ray detectors should enable better visualization of details of small endovascular devices such as stents, coils, balloons, catheters and guide wires inside small vessels. This improved visualization along with the system readiness to operate under real-time clinical conditions in the angiography suite should enable more accurate diagnoses, as well as improve and speed-up the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as aneurysms and vessel stenoses. In addition, the user-friendly interface along with the CAPIDS well-implemented automation of the radiographic procedures should make conduct of complex EIGI for the radiologist or the interventionalist simpler.