The Malay contact varieties of eastern Indonesia: A typological comparison
Paauw, Scott H.
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This dissertation is about the varieties of Malay in eastern Indonesia which have arisen through language contact as a result of trade and colonial policies over the past 500-1000 years. Seven varieties have been identified which have become the native languages of their communities.: Manado Malay, North Moluccan Malay, Ambon Malay, Banda Malay, Kupang Malay, Larantuka Malay and Papua Malay. These varieties are described and compared, using a typological framework, looking at their phonology, general structure and clause structure, nouns and noun phrases, verbs and verb phrases and other grammatical features. The similarities and differences between the varieties in terms of each feature are discussed, and innovations are noted. A grammatical sketch of each variety is included in Appendix 1. Conclusions are drawn regarding the historical origins and developments of the seven varieties. These varieties are thought to have developed from Vehicular Malay, an undocumented historical trade language which brought the Malay language to eastern Indonesia from the Malay homeland in western Indonesia. Features which can be attributed to Vehicular Malay are described in the conclusion of this dissertation. In addition, features which are shared between the Malay contact varieties of eastern Indonesia but which are not found in western Indonesia are evidence that at one time, there was a single variety spoken in eastern Indonesia from which the Malay contact varieties are descended. These features are presented, and this previously undefined variety is given the name Eastern Indonesia Trade Malay (EITM). It is shown that the seven varieties are descended from EITM, and a likely pattern of the spread of these varieties is presented. Furthermore, it is noted that one variety, Larantuka Malay, in addition to features derived from EITM, also has a significant component derived from peninsular Malay. This dissertation provides important information regarding the historical development of the contact Malay varieties of eastern Indonesia, as well as providing a typological description of these varieties. Furthermore, in view of the fact that these varieties are threatened by the expansion of the national language, Indonesian, the descriptions of these languages is an important step in documenting endangered language varieties.