American movement: Nature and civilization in Turner, Cooper, Twain, and Cather
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American movement started from the Atlantic towards the frontier. Defining the frontier as "the meeting point between savagery and civilization," Frederick Jackson Turner bases it on the development of America in his frontier-regional hypothesis. His hypothesis, which is made "English-speaking white men" his principal concept, cannot but be attacked in multicultural society. American literary writers do, however, show their balanced idea including minorities in their novels. Besides trying to justify the Revolutionary War and the Louisiana Purchases in The Pioneers (1823) and The Prairie (1827), James Fenimore Cooper focuses on the destruction of Nature and the extermination of the Native Americans during the westward movement. Although the friendship between Natty Bumppo and Chingachgook lets Cooper hope to establish new relationship between them, Cooper circumvents the solution for the Native Americans by exterminating them through the war between the good Indian and the bad one. Instead of straight movement to Nature from Civilization, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) shows the movement between Nature and Civilization, as the frontier was closing. Huck's escape with a slave, Jim, which makes Huck realize the difference between individual and society, allows Mark Twain to regard the slavery as Zeitgeist . Through the thought of good-nature men, including Tom Sawyer, at the Phelps farm, Huck is getting out of his romantic idea and realizes the reality of the slavery. With the disappearance of the frontier and the influx of the immigration of European immigrants, Americans moves toward the East from the West in My Ántonia (1918). Contrasting the struggles of the eastern European women immigrants in the West and the East, Willa Cather shows the reminiscences of the West by tracing the movement of Jim Burden. The movement towards the East expands to the world in One of Ours (1922). Through the United States Army against the Great War, America displayed its economic, cultural, and political capacity to international society.