Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry studies of cluster ion analysis for semiconductors and diffusion of manganese in gallium arsenide at low temperatures
Goacher, Robyn Elizabeth
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Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an established method for the quantitative analysis of dopants in semiconductors. The quasi-parallel mass acquisition of Time-of-Flight SIMS, along with the development of polyatomic primary ions, have rapidly increased the use of SIMS for analysis of organic and biological specimens. However, the advantages and disadvantages of using cluster primary ions for quantitative analysis of inorganic materials are not clear. The research described in this dissertation investigates the consequences of using polyatomic primary ions for the analysis of inorganic compounds in ToF-SIMS. Furthermore, the diffusion of Mn in GaAs, which is important in Spintronic material applications such as spin injection, is also studied by quantitative ToF-SIMS depth profiling. In the first portion of this work, it was discovered that primary ion bombardment of pre-sputtered compound semiconductors GaAs and InP for the purpose of spectral analysis resulted in the formation of cluster secondary ions, as well as atomic secondary ions (Chapter 2). In particular, bombardment using a cluster primary ion such as Bi 3 q + or C 60 q + resulted in higher yields of high-mass cluster secondary ions. These cluster secondary ions did not have bulk stoichiometry, “non-stoichiometric”, in contrast to the paradigm of stoichiometric cluster ions generated from salts. This is attributed to the covalent bonding of the compound semiconductors, as well as to preferential sputtering. The utility of high-mass cluster secondary ions in depth profiling is also discussed. Relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) calculated for ion-implanted Fe and Mn samples in GaAs also exhibit differences based on whether monatomic or polyatomic primary ions are utilized (Chapter 3). These RSFs are important for the quantitative conversion of intensity to concentration. When Bi 3 2+ primary ions are used for analysis instead of Bi + primary ions, there is a significantly higher proportion of Mn and Fe ions present in the spectra, as referenced to the matrix species. The magnitude of this effect differs depending on the sputtering ion, Cs or C 60 . The use of C 60 cluster primary ions for depth profiling of GaAs is also investigated (Chapter 4). In particular, for quantitative depth profiling, parameters such as depth resolution, ion and sputter yields, and relative sensitivity factors are pertinent to profiling thin layered structures quantitatively and quickly. C 60 sputtering is compared to Cs sputtering in all of these aspects. It is found that 10 keV C 60 + is advantageous for the analysis of metals (such as Au contacts on Si) but that previously reported roughness problems prohibit successful analysis in Si. For Al delta layers and quantum wells in GaAs, C 60 q + sputtering induced very little roughness in the sample, and resulted in high ion yields and excellent signal-to-noise as compared to Cs + sputtering. However, the depth resolution of C 60 is at best equivalent to 1 keV Cs + and does not extend into the sub 2-nm range. Furthermore, C 60 sputtering results in significant carbon implantation. In the second portion of this work, quantitative ToF-SIMS depth profiling was used to evaluate the diffusion of Mn into GaAs. Samples were prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy in the department of Physics. Mn diffusion from MnAs was investigated first, and Mn diffusion from layered epitaxial structures of GaAs / Ga 1-x Mn x As / GaAs was investigated second. Diffusion experiments were conducted by annealing portions of the samples in sealed glass ampoules at low temperatures (200-400°C). Different sputtering rates were measured for MnAs and GaAs and the measured depth profiles were corrected for these effects. RSFs measured for Mn ion-implanted standards were used to calibrate the intensity scale. For diffusion from MnAs, thin MnAs layers resulted in no measurable changes except in the surface transient. For thick MnAs layers, it was determined that substantial loss of As occurred at 400°C, resulting in severe sample roughening, which inhibited proper SIMS analysis. Results for the diffusion of Mn out of a thick buried layer of Ga 1-x Mn x As show that annealing induces diffusion of Mn species from the Ga 1-x Mn x As layer into the neighboring GaAs with an activation energy of 0.69±0.09 eV. This results in doping of the GaAs layer, which is detrimental to spin injection for Spintronics devices.