Stereo augmented reality surgical trainer: Needle biopsy of the spine
Chowriappa, Ashirwad J.
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Needle biopsy or needle aspiration biopsy is a minimally-invasive image-guided surgical procedure in which a hollow, needle shaped surgical tool is inserted into a patient's body to extract tissue for examination. The presence of critical organs near the spine, and the strict directional restrictions the surrounding bone structure places on the biopsy route makes this a difficult task. In this thesis we introduce a robust registration and tracking methodology using Kalman filter banks for multisource data fusion, combining data form a trinocular vision system and an IR tracking system providing reliable registration and tool tracking. We discuss calibration techniques to minimize static and dynamic errors followed by the design and development of a stereoscopic AR simulator for surgical training and skill acquisition in an anatomical context for navigating the biopsy needle. In preliminary trials participants were asked to insert the biopsy needle into the lesion along the target route. Stereoscopic vision along with stereo AR provided guidance in accomplishing the task. Results showed that all participants were able to perform the task effectively. Trials performed by disabling stereoscopic vision and guidance resulting in reduction in depth perception, results showed participants did not acquire the target accurately.