Deception and the body: Replicating, improving and extending analyses of bodily movement in deception
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By definition a liar knows what they say to another is designed to mislead. Based upon extant theories on ironic processes and embodied cognition, we developed a more precise deception detection model that predicts lies to be betrayed by incongruities between and among verbal and body communication channels. This model was tested in a novel, ecologically valid high stakes experimental paradigm where politically motivated participants are allowed to choose whether to commit a mock theft against their political opponent group. Participants were then interrogated by a law enforcement professional in order to ascertain whether they committed this theft, with strong punishments for being judged deceptive, and strong rewards for being judged truthful. Videotapes of the participants' bodily behavior while under interrogation were coded and analyzed both according to the type and location of movement in the interaction sequence to examine for the first time the communicative incongruity between the verbal and nonverbal language of truth tellers and liars. The results showed that liars were significantly more likely to display incongruous behaviors. The implications for other communicative channels in deception are discussed.