NMR-based metabonomics applied to assist in vitro fertilization and to diagnose renal cancer carcinoma
Metabonomics is the "quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification". 1 It is widely used in mammalian systems to study phenotypic and physiological effects, 2 pre-clinical drug candidate safety assessment, 3 disease diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy. 4,5 Here, two applications of NMR-based metabonomics are described, namely: in vitro fertilization (IVF) and renal cancer carcinoma (RCC). During IVF, the fertilized eggs are grown in a medium for 2 or 3 days before reimplantation into the uterus. In turn, original and excreted metabolites from the culture medium could give valuable information to assess the implantability of the embryos. NMR spectra for IVF media were acquired following standard operating procedures (SOPs) using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a micro-flow probe connected to an auto sampler to ensure high-quality data. In addition, some of the data were acquired using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a cryogenic probe in order to gain higher sensitivity. The spectral quality was assessed (e.g. signal-to-noise and linewidth analysis, residual water width, calculation of figures of merits for phase and baseline correction) prior to multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The acquired spectra for the medium from the implantable embryos were found to be significantly different from those that were non-implantable. This difference was confirmed after targeted profiling. Resonance assignments compounds in the IVF medium were obtained to discover biomarker for predicting embryo implantability. So far, 127 peaks out of 147 peaks observed in 1D 1H NMR spectra were assigned for 14 compounds. Data processing and spectral quality assessment is also described for RCC.