Preparation and chromatographic evaluations of monolithic structures based on group IV metal oxides
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The demand for higher selectivity and performance has led scientist for searching and developing new chromatographic platforms. Various support materials and their surface modifications have been developed in order to increase both the chemical and physical stability of the material. This allows the chromatographers to explore the benefits of using more aggressive conditions such as high pressure, different temperature, and pH extremes. There has been an increased attention for development of more stable non-silica-based inorganic phases, more specifically Group IV metal oxides. These metals offer more durable and hydrolytically stable substrates due to their pronounced stability. Morphology and type of stationary phases continue to advance. From such "evolution" monolithic columns have emerged as a viable alternative column technology to current standard, particle packed columns, in HPLC by exhibiting faster separations while maintaining high column performances. The application of metal oxides with their pronounced stability as a chromatographic support material has been established; however, the application of metal oxides in monolithic columns is relatively new. Such "breed" of stationary phases can improve and offer different selectivity to existing otherwise difficult to achieve separations. The unique ion- and ligand exchange capabilities exhibited by zirconia and hafnia offer facets applicable to fields ranging from liquid chromatography to peptides and proteins purification. The studies featured in this dissertation focuses on the synthesis, characteristics, and initial chromatographic testing of bare metal oxide monolithic materials based on zirconia and hafnia. In addition, we explore the usage of polymer-coated hafnia for application in reverse phase liquid chromatography.