Long Term Carbon Dioxide Sequestration System Modeling
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To satisfy the forecast of significantly increased demand and replacement or retrofit of aging power plants of in the next few decades, a large amount of new power generation needs to come on line. Coal, an abundant resource in the U.S. remains an important part of the solution to this issue because of its availability. As a part of the solution to the energy issue, coal based plants have many advantages but one disadvantage which cannot be ignored: it can generate a significant amount of CO 2 which has a serious impact on the green house effect. All other pollutants e.g. NO 2 , SO 2 and particulate matters have been regulated on emissions, and CO 2 is expected to be regulated in the near future. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), a critical technology pathway to mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions of greenhouse gas is expensive. However, the technology may be improved to cost less than current coal based plants do by 2025 which would make sequestration of CO 2 practical. Even so, there are still a variety of costs involved in a whole system approach: where, when and how to construct and operate potential new plants, retrofit the existing plants, construct and operate injection wells and pipelines. This is especially important with a planning horizon of 20–40 years. This necessitates the thorough development of a mathematical programming model of the entire system with consideration of all costs and revenues and environmental regulations. In this research, a comprehensive mathematical programming model is proposed to evaluate the full economic impact of such a system. Also, computational experiments for different scenarios are used to validate this model necessitating algorithmic development for large-scale instances.