Fracture patterns, lineaments and seismic reflection data: Integration for fault mapping in the Appalachian Basin of east-central New York State
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This study integrates surface structure data with faults observed in 2-D seismic reflection profiles and lineaments identified from aeromagnetic gradients, DEMs, slope aspect, and satellite imagery in order to map probable fault patterns. The study area is located in the Middle to Upper Devonian Catskill Delta Complex in the Appalachian Basin in central New York State. This previously unmapped study area is significant because of active oil and gas exploration in the region. Several characteristics of surface bedrock fractures were collected within the study area. Fracture characteristics include orientation, dip, spacing, fracture abutting relationships and fracture geometry. Fracture characteristics are displayed using modified rose diagrams to illustrate trends in orientation, frequency and fracture relationships. Three regional fracture orientations are common in the area. Fracture Intensification Domains (FIDs) are characterized by relatively closely spaced fractures; FIDs can indicate areas where faulting is probable. Each of the three regional fracture orientations have zones of closely spaced fractures. FIDs recognized at the surface correlate spatially with thrust and high angle faults observed in 2-D seismic and with lineaments. Lineaments identified from satellite imagery, DEMs, and aeromagnetic gradients are combined with exposed bedrock fracture data and seismic reflection data. Two anomalously long NW-striking aeromagnetic lineaments are located in the center of the study area. NNE- and NS-striking lineaments are dense where appropriately trending aeromagnetic gradients are located. NNE-, WNW-, ENE-striking lineaments are also coincident with fractures and FID orientations. The integration of these data promote mapping of FIDs in order to define areas with a higher probability of faults. This fault map will point to exploring areas that should be high-graded in the exploration for fractured-plays.