Urban monuments: Lessons from major cities
Monuments, especially towers, are important ways in which cities express their character and ambitions. This study explores four urban monuments: Eiffel Tower in Paris, France; CN Tower in Toronto, Canada; Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia; and Oriental Pearl in Shanghai, China. Using English and Chinese published books, journals and newspapers, describes each monument's background, designers or political leaders, special issues, design elements and meaning. A project as large as an urban tower requires the convergence of many factors such as public support, a client with a singular vision, and plenty of money. And the average cost of these four monuments was $140 million in US dollars adjusted to 2005. The study finds that towers have roles as expressions of historical events and national ambitions, as advertisements for the builder and city, as expression of science and technology, and as universal expression of human strength as against nature and time.