Organic-inorganic hybrid silica-based materials for capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography
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Liquid chromatography (LC) is one of the most essential analytical techniques used for separation and/or purification purposes in chemical analysis. It is not a surprise to notice that the most active research area in LC has been the development of new chromatographic media. Silica is the most commonly used support material for the anchoring of stationary phases in LC. One of the major drawbacks of these materials, however, is their relatively narrow hydrolytic stability range. To improve the stability of silica-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrid silica composites were synthesized as thin films, for open tubular LC, and in the particulate format for use in packed columns for LC. The hybrid organic-inorganic silica particles were synthesized in the range of 1 μm diameter. The relatively non-porous particles have an excellent size distribution (e.g., ± 3%). For the most part, the organosilica particles were synthesized for use in reversed phase LC by, for example, incorporating an octyl moiety into the silica particle. An allyl-hybrid silica based material in a monolithic format was also synthesized and characterized. This material was synthesized using sol-gel processing under slightly acidic conditions and tested for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) and for LC. The allyl monolith showed reversed phase retention characteristics; more importantly, however, the allyl-monolith provides a platform to develop upon as it offers a reactive functionality for attachment of different moieties at the surface of the monolith, hence, providing the opportunity for tuning stationary phase selectivity.