Physio-psychological concept expressions in Ewe: A syntax-semantics lexicon
Awuku, Ameyo Sena
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This dissertation is about physio-psychological concept expressions in Anlo Ewe, a Niger Congo language of the (new) Kwa branch. The term "physio-psychological" is a cover term for expressions of physiological, as well as psychological experiential phenomena. Physiological concept expressions are sensations (e.g. urges, such as being hungry, thirsty, feeling sleepy); ambient temperature effects; various internal conditions (e.g. sickness/illness, feeling cold, catching a cold); aches and pains (e.g. having a headache, toothache, pain in the arm, or head); and other discomforts. The physiological includes healing expressions. Psychological expressions are emotion concept expressions (e.g. happiness, sadness, anger). Desire and need expressions are also looked at. These are both physiological and psychological. The study is a syntax-semantics description. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive inventory of a syntactically and semantically coherent set of expressions that are part of the Ewe lexicon. The methodology adopted is an inductive one, which takes its findings from the data observed. From this standpoint the study found that physio-psychological concepts in Ewe fall into three groups with typical and atypical expressions. Typical Group 1 is expressed predominantly transitively with dynamic/active predicates, and the subject is not the animate experiencer. The atypical involves a reverse syntax. Typical Group 2 is expressed intransitively (semantically) with an animate experiencer as subject. A few transitive expressions exist. The atypical takes a reverse syntax. Group 3 has two alternating structures. Both are transitive and cannot be described as typical and atypical. Group 1 involves sensation concepts, including sickness, aches and pains. The semantics of the typical Group 1 expression involves a metaphoric conceptualization. Atypical Group 1 expressions resemble some typical Group 2 expressions comprising emotion. The majority of typical Group 2 expressions involve metonymy. Some involve metaphor. A few have to do with neither metonymy nor metaphor. Hate, need and desire concepts come under Group 3. Group 3 semantics is interpreted by positing two readings, V 1 and V 2 , where V stands for the predicate. Each reading depends on which entity occupies the subject slot, whether animate or inanimate.