Educating women for peace: The life and work of Hannah Johnston Bailey and Katherine Devereux Blake in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century women's peace movement
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This study presents the transition of women's activism for social change, centering on the integration of pacifism and feminism in the peace movement in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. For this purpose I selected two women as model cases: Hannah Johnston Bailey of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union: Katherine Devereux Blake of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Tracing two women's lives, I compared their sameness and difference. Although Hannah Bailey and Katherine Blake shared same concerns, such as women suffrage, education, and peace, they differed in their self-identifications, their perspectives on internationalism, gender roles, and consequently activities and approaches to their goals. I examined the integration of pacifism and feminism as an important key to understand these differences.