The flowability and adaptability of gutta-percha using a new obturation material
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Various techniques and materials have been used to fill the root canal system; proper obturation of the root canal space is required for long term success. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (i) the flowability of the gutta-percha in simulated lateral canals of two differing canal sizes, using four different obturation techniques, in a split-tooth model and (ii) adaptation of gutta-percha to the root canal walls using different obturation techniques. A split-tooth model was created with artificial lateral canals at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 9 mm from the apex. These canals were of two different sizes, 0.15 mm and 0.3 mm, and placed in the lingual section of the tooth . Four depressions were also made on the buccal surface of the root canal at 2 mm,4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm from the apex of the tooth. The canal was obturated with five obturation techniques. There were four experimental groups, (N=10 for each technique). Experimental groups consisted of: warm vertical condensation, GuttaCore®SuperEndo-β, and Thermafil Plus®. Cold lateral condensation was used as a comparative group (N=5). After each obturation, the split-tooth was opened and a digital photograph was taken under 10 x magnification. This was transferred to software to enable measurement of the extension of the gutta-percha into each lateral canal. The amount of adaptation of gutta-percha into the depressions was scored as 0= no filling, 1= partially filled, 2= completely filled. The data was analyzed statistically using three-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA. Results indicate there was not statistical interaction between the three variables (canal size, canal level, and obturation technique). However, there was interaction between obturation technique and canal level, and obturation technique and canal size. SuperEndo-β showed the best flowability at all levels with 100% complete adaptation and GuttaCore® showed a moderate flow with 50% complete adaptation. Thermafil Plus® showed a low to moderate flow at all levels with less adaptation than GuttaCore®. Warm vertical condensation showed a moderate flow in coronal and middle thirds and no flowability in the apical third with complete adaptation at all levels with the exception of the most apical (2 mm) depression. The GuttaCore® showed a higher flowability in the 0.30 mm lateral canal while the other obturation techniques showed similar flowability in both size canals (0.15 mm and 0.30 mm) Conclusion: the new carrier based obturator, GuttaCore® showed a good flowability at all levels and acceptable adaptability to the root canal wall.