Collaborative trends in the biomedical sciences: Outcomes, innovation, and academic entrepreneurship
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Collaboration among university researchers is examined to understand how specific characteristics of research and industry networking associate with academic and medical innovation, research outcomes and academic entrepreneurship. A related goal of the study is to identify factors that influence academic innovation and analyze outcomes of different types of industry collaboration and their relationships with medical innovation. Considering the triple helix dynamics, the study investigates regional synergies for innovation between key actors at different levels. The analysis is based on data collected from a survey of researchers in the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus (BNMC), which includes three major institutions of national and international reputation. The results indicate that collaboration with academic research networking is less productive than industry networking and the person's own skills. Academic innovativeness is related to academic-industry network. Academic entrepreneurship and medical innovation from industry collaboration are also related to R&D; project and consultancy channel of interactions. Industry funding is not common but effective, that is, researchers with industry funding note innovation and entrepreneurship as outcomes. Academic leadership is a predictor of industry funding; barriers are noted to be personal interest as well as the possession of appropriate intellectual property and knowhow. While some findings confirm hypotheses developed from the literature, other findings contradict expectations and open up avenues for further research.