The Influence of Charged Xerogel Side Chains on the Settlement and Adhesion of Ectocarpus crouaniorum and Ulva linza
Gatley, Caitlyn M.
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A series of five xerogel coatings were prepared to evaluate the influence of charged surface moieties on the settlement and adhesion strength of Ectocarpus crouaniorum and Ulva linza. The coatings were prepared from mixtures of 3-(N,N-dimethylaminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (DMAP), N-methylaminopropyl trimethoxysilane (MAP), 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl) trimethoxysilane (TFP), and phenyltriethoxysilane (PH), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface of each coating. After immersion in artificial seawater, the coatings possessed broadly similar surface energies (50±1 - 69±3 mN m -1 ) and a widely varying ability to have positively charged functionality at the surface. The settlement and percent removal assay for E. crouaniorum revealed a stronger adhesion of the alga to coatings possessing positively charged functionalities at the surface 1:9 DMAP/TEOS, 1:9 MAP/TEOS, and 1:9 AP/TEOS relative to the uncharged, non-basic 1:4 TFP/TEOS and 1:4 PH/TEOS coatings. The settlement and percent removal assay for U. linza also revealed stronger adhesion of sporelings to positively charged surfaces functionalities. These results suggest that charged moieties present at the surface is an important parameter to consider when developing coatings for foul-release purposes.