Custom CMOS integrated sensor systems
We interact with electronic devices daily in almost everything we do. Examples of these interactions range from personal communications to fitness activities to medical health monitoring to traffic control systems to food preparation. The integrated circuit was invented in the late 1950s early 1960s and it provided the foundation for personal computers and portable electronic devices which are small in size, light-weight and have relatively low power consumption. Integrated sensor development is a sub-division of integrated circuit design; this field focuses on merging sensors with microelectronic integrated circuits to allow sensors to have the benefit of integrated circuits, and enabling integrated circuits to directly accept inputs from non-electrical sources. In this dissertation, the motivation for designing integrated CMOS sensors is explained, including a brief history of CMOS theory and technology, from the first theorized model of MOSFETs to the invention of actual device, eventually to the commercialization and mass production. Next, physical phenomena of these devices are investigated. By understanding the operating principles of the physical environment being monitored and how the environment affects CMOS devices, a basic foundation is provided for creating CMOS based sensors. Lastly, application specific integrated sensor designs are presented and discussed. To tackle the disadvantage of multi-pixel color detection in CMOS cameras, a novel method for color differentiation using single photodetector in traditional single-well CMOS technology provides further study into physical manipulation of sensor devices. The DynamicEye Glare Reduction Glasses sensor chip is then discussed and analyzed in detail to offer an understanding in sensor implementation with signal processing circuitry. A High-Power Multi-Parameter Sensor chip paves the way for researching multiple sensor fusion onto a single CMOS chip, utilizing temperature, electric field, and magnetic field. Last but not least, a wide dynamic range integrated sensor is presented to investigate the capability of detection range manipulation using a variable carrier signal. The summary of the work includes future directions for integrated sensor designs.