The Moran correlation coefficient
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Spatial correlation depicts the pattern of similarity or regularity between two spatially distributed variables. It not only implies the shared information contained in both observed variables of interest from a spatial perspective, but also provides a clue leading to the potential causation that drives the spatial process between them. A statistic by the name of the Moran correlation coefficient (MCC) is proposed to quantify the spatial correlation between a pair of spatially distributed variables. It is inspired by Moran's I and Pearson's r and has a variety of derivations that can be calculated in discrete, continuous, matrix and multivariate scenarios. The characteristics and adaptabilities together with the hypothesis testing of the proposed statistic are discussed. Its broad usability is exemplified by case studies from the arena of econometrics and ecology.