Food contributors to intake of macronutrients in the diet of puerto rican women
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Incidence rates of breast cancer and colorectal cancer are increasing more rapidly in Puerto Rico than in the United States. Differences in diet have been examined as risk factors for these and other types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Puerto Rico is lower than in the United States, but still much higher than in Italy, Japan, and France. Evaluating the Puerto Rican diet may explain some of the variation in disease risk between regions. In this study, we assessed the foods which contributed to amount of intake and variability in intake of macronutrients in the diets of 100 women in the San Juan metropolitan area. Participants were between the ages of 29 and 79, and were free of cancer at the time of enrollment. We ranked the foods based on contribution of energy (kilocalories), total fat (gm), saturated fat (gm), polyunsaturated fatty acids (gm), monounsaturated fatty acids (gm), cholesterol (gm), protein (gm), carbohydrates (gm) and dietary fiber (gm). We also reported the cumulative percent variability in nutrient intake explained by the growing list of foods. We found that the women consumed a diet combining both traditional Puerto Rican foods and foods which are typical of a western diet pattern. We identified differences between the Puerto Rican diet and Hispanic American diet as described in previous studies, and the diet of Puerto Ricans living in the United States. These data are of interest for the development of a specialized food frequency questionnaire to examine specific diet and disease relationships in Puerto Rican women. They are also useful for making comparisons between the Puerto Rican diet and diets of other populations.