Guanosine Monophosphate Reductase (GMPR) is a Suppressor of Melanoma Invasion
Wawrzyniak, Joseph A.
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Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancers, and the mechanisms underlying melanoma invasive phenotype are not completely understood. Here, we report that expression of guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR), an enzyme involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, was down-regulated in invasive stages of human melanoma. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments revealed that GMPR down-regulates the amounts of several GTP-bound (active) RHO-GTPases, suppresses the ability of melanoma cells to form invadopodia, degrade extracellular matrix and invade in vitro and grow as tumor xenografts in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that GMPR partially depletes intracellular GTP pools. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo GTP biosynthesis suppressed, whereas addition of exogenous guanosine increased invasion of melanoma cells as well as cells from other cancer types. Our data identified GMPR as a melanoma invasion suppressor, and established a link between guanosine metabolism and RHO-GTPase-dependent melanoma cell invasion.