A (mis) encounter of the post - 2000 Mexican nation - state: The democratic alternatives of Vicente Fox and the EZLN (and the reapproriation of the popular)
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In the post - 2000 Mexican nation - state the implementation of democratic methods has become essential to the nation's modernization. The conflict between populism, subalternity and the hybridity of Mexican culture can be used as a lens through which to examine the obstacles and complications in the development of democratization in Mexico. The failure to implement the San Andrés Accords in their original form can be seen as a pivotal moment for examining the (mis) encounter between the state and a subaltern group as well as the conflict between alternative versions of democracy. The EZLN and Vicente Fox had divergent democratic methods for disassociating and opposing themselves from PRI, yet each had similar trajectories for constructing the "popular" and therefore challenging state hegemony. The methods of each democratic alternative sheds light on the role of public opinion and civil society in Mexico and the level to which certain parts of the Mexican population are excluded and marginalized. The media simultaneously served as an advantage and obstacle for Fox and the EZLN and its bilateral role reveals a continued struggle against the state's cultural hegemony as well as the role of misinformation in influencing public opinion. Democratization and modernization have become important terms for Mexico and Mexicans and the development of these concepts through alternative parties and groups, such as the EZLN and Vicente Fox's presidency, have proven capable of resisting the political and cultural hegemony of the state as well as the homogenization of the media by their ability to manipulate the popular and thus they have stimulated further democratic progress in Mexico.