Influence of Sputtering and Ceramic Type on Bond Strength of CP Ti-Ceramic
MetadataShow full item record
Statement of problem: At high firing temperatures, commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) forms a thick and irregular oxide layer that affects bonding with porcelain. Sputtering deposition of Chromium (Cr) or zirconium (Zr)/ zirconia (ZrO2) may provide a protecting surface to minimize the formation of oxide layer. This may promote adhesion of low fusing porcelain to CP Ti. Purpose: This in vitro study used a three-point bending test to evaluate the bond strength of ceramic to CP Ti plates after three different surface treatments on: (1) no surface treatment, (2) sputtered with Zr, (3) sputtered with Cr. Also, the bond strength of ceramic to CP Ti plates was evaluated using two different dental porcelains: Ti-22 Super Porcelain and E.max press. Materials and methods: Sixty-six grade IV CP Ti plates were divided into 6 groups of each 11. Specimens were either sputtered with Zr or Cr, or not treated. E.max press or Ti- 22 Super Porcelain was applied on sputtered specimens. Ti-22 Super Porcelain was the only ceramic used for non-treated specimens with and without Triceram bonding agent. Specimens were subjected to three-point bending test for evaluation of bond strength following ISO 9693. Debonding modes were determined by examination with scanning electron microscopy and visible microscopy. Result: Combination of non-treated CP Ti and Ti-22 Super Porcelain showed the highest bond strength (35.46 MPa). No significant difference was observed in bond strength when an intermediate layer was applied to CP Ti. Triceram Bonder did not improve the bond strength between Ti-22 Super Porcelain and CP Ti, 27.23 MPa and 35.46 MPa, respectively. When E.max was used as layering ceramic, CP Ti sputtered by Cr produced significantly higher bond strength compared to CP Ti sputtered by Zr, 28.9 MPa and 22.28 MPa, respectively. Ti-22 Super Porcelain was also significantly higher in bond strength compare to E.max press. Conclusion: Sputtering deposition of Cr increases the bond strength between CP Ti and E.max porcelain, and the resulting bond strength is higher than metal ceramic bonding value defined by ISO 9693. Triceram bonding agent does improve the bonding of non- treated CP Ti to Ti-22 Super Porcelain. Results showed that Ti-22 bonding agent had higher bonding strength between CP Ti and porcelain. Ti-22 Super Porcelain showed better results than E.max porcelain.