Design and development of a haptic device for a trocar insertion minimum invasive procedure simulator
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Trocar insertion is the first step in laparoscopic surgery procedures. It is a difficult procedure to learn and practice because it is carried out almost entirely without any visual feedback of the organs underlying the tissues being punctured. A majority of injuries are attributed to excessive use of force by surgeons during the insertion. Current surgical trainers for laparoscopy focuses primarily on training for skills needed to manipulate the instruments after the trocar has been inserted. So there is a need for a haptic based computer simulator to train and improve the trocar insertion skills which is a critical initial procedure and major source of injuries occur at this stage. Current commercial haptic interfaces have a low force output range of the order of 6-10N and few are available between 20-100N range. But they are expensive and experimental data shows that the forces involved in trocar insertion procedure on adult range from 40 to 60N. So to develop a simple and cheap high fidelity device a new design is proposed specifically for the insertion task. This system has been integrated with a virtual reality trocar insertion simulator called TroSim. The haptic force is capable of producing high forces due to use of brushless dc geared motor with a compact design. The device along with the trocar insertion simulator 'TroSim' will be a good training simulator for the surgeons. Initial test results match with the simulations of the mathematical model of the haptic device and was found to be free of jerks within the working range. The next step is to understand if the explicit force measurement of the contact force can be replaced with a force observer where the first step is system identification of the device.