The association between total white blood cell count, its differential, serum albumin, and the risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes
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The problem under investigation in this research is whether acute phase reactants, specifically white blood cell count and albumin, can be used as predictors for the development of both type 2 diabetes mellitus, referred to as t2dm, and prediabetes. The first hypothesis of this research is that individuals with a high white blood cell count, classified as being in the highest tertile of white blood cell count, will have an increased odds of developing t2dm when compared to individuals with low white blood cell count. The second hypothesis of this research is that individuals with a high serum albumin level, classified as being in the highest tertile of serum albumin, will have a decreased odds of developing t2dm when compared to individuals with low serum albumin levels. Previous studies that were considered for this research included four studies on white blood cell count and t2dm as well as one study on albumin and t2dm. All four studies on white blood cell count found statistically significantly increased odds of developing t2dm when white blood cell counts were increased. The study on albumin found an increased odds of developing t2dm as serum albumin levels decrease. This research will use data from the Western New York Health Study that was a case control study conducted between 1996-2001 with follow up exams between 2003-2004. This study had 1,455 participants aged 35-75. At the baseline interview various forms of data were collected, including anthropometric measures, blood samples, and lifestyle questionnaires. At the follow up exams diabetic status was determined. The blood samples taken at the baseline exam were then analyzed to determine white blood cell counts and serum albumin levels. 61 participants were diagnosed with t2dm while 91 participants were diagnosed with prediabetes. Conditional logistic regression will be used to determine if increased white blood cell count is associated with an increased odds of developing t2dm, if decreased serum albumin levels are associated with an increased odds of developing t2dm, as well as if one component of the white blood cell count differential is more strongly associated with an increased odds of developing t2dm than the other components. The potential significance of this research is that if the expected results are seen it will provide another independent risk factor for the development of t2dm as well as provide support for the hypothesis that t2dm is in part an inflammatory disease.