The Relationship between Shadow Education and Mathematics Achievement in the United States and China (Shanghai)
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This study, drawing on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, examined the relationship of out-of-school-time-lessons to math achievement in tenth grade students in the US and China (Shanghai). Social economic status (SES) is used as moderator. Results of multiple regression analysis reveal that out-of-school-time-lessons is not the primary reason to explain the mathematics achievement gap between these two countries. After adding gender, SES, and school type as control variables, out-of-school-time-lessons is not significantly related to math achievement except 2-4 hours out-of-school-time-lessons in China (Shanghai). On the contrary, in the United States, out-of-school-time-lessons is negatively significantly related to math achievement. Thus, there are moderator effects of country. SES moderates the relationship between out-of-school-time-lessons and math achievement in China (Shanghai) but not in the US. At the end of the paper, limitations and implications of the paper are discussed.