An Empirical Investigation of the Parking Violation Behavior of Commercial Vehicles in New York City
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As an exploratory step toward addressing commercial vehicle parking problems in urban areas, this study analyzed the data of commercial vehicle parking summons in New York City to identify factors that affect the parking violation behavior. A geographic information system was built to demonstrate the hot spots of commercial vehicle parking violations based on the analysis of violation frequencies by road segment and tax lot. Furthermore, a count data based model Zero inflated negative binomial model was developed to quantify the effects of the built environment, parking prices, road characteristics, and city demographics on the parking violation frequencies of commercial vehicles. The model captures two possible states of parking violation frequencies separately, namely the zero violation frequency state and the non-zero frequency state, in order to account for the significant number of roadway segments with the zero violation frequency. Several factors, such as land price, population and employment densities, and land use types at the tax lot level, were found to have significant impact on the parking violation behavior of commercial vehicles.