Chacoan hegemony in the middle San Juan Region, A.D. 1000 - 1140
Witt, David Eugene
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Chacoan hegemonic influence, dating from A.D. 1000 to 1140, is investigated at 13 sites throughout the Middle San Juan Region, centered on the modern city of Farmington, New Mexico. These sites, which represent a range in both size and origin of occupants, all uniquely experienced various economic, ideological, political, and martial influences, and interacted with the Chacoan polity in different ways and for different reasons. This dissertation project investigates the growth and evolution of that interaction through a comprehensive analysis of lithic artifact style, which is contrasted with architectural style. Style is approached through both isochrestic (hidden) and iconological (visible) concepts. By utilizing these two forms of style, it is possible to utilize lithic artifact style as 1) a material proxy for ethnicity and as 2) an indication of the various forms of influence. By investigating both the ethnic identity of individuals within communities and the foreign influence experienced by those individuals, examples of hegemony are elucidated throughout the archaeological record of the project area. The growth and evolution of Chacoan hegemony is traced through the project time period, which encompasses the Mid- to Late-Pueblo II Period. This project demonstrates that some communities actively participated with the Chacoan polity during its period of expansion, while others may have utilized measures to limit Chacoan influence. Furthermore, the different regions experienced Chacoan expansion differently: the San Juan and Animas valleys experienced colonial expansion, whereas the La Plata Valley primarily experienced economic interaction.