Biosynthesis and characterization of the nonribosomal peptide-polyketide siderophore Yersiniabactin for in vitro trace-metal removal
Fawaz, Samar Tamara
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Due to its many biological roles, iron is one of the most essential elements for organisms to survive. Although it is the fourth most abundant element on earth, its low solubility in aerobic environments makes it biologically limited. Most microorganisms have evolved to survive under these iron-limiting conditions by secreting at least one siderophore, a molecule produced to sequester free iron from the surrounding environment. To this day, much research on siderophores has been conducted identifying over 500 known siderophores; many show the ability to bind with metals other than iron. Yersiniabactin (Ybt) is the siderophore produced by pathogenic Yersinia pestis , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , and Yersinia enterocolitica. Recently, Ybt demonstrated a unique ability to bind copper, despite its strong affinity for iron, to protect the pathogen during infection [1, 2]. These features make Ybt important for potential therapeutic, environmental, and industrial applications. In this work, we initiated experiments that tested copper removal from both non-biological and biological fluids with the anticipation that successful results would support further assessment in settings such as wastewater treatment or in clinical applications such as a treatment for Wilson's disease. Furthermore, the removal of trace amounts aluminum, copper, silver, cobalt, and iron in vitro was tested to expand on the potential applications of Ybt.