Assessing the Effects of Soil Distribution on Flood Modeling using a Combination of a Hydrologic and a Hydraulic Model
Park, Jae Young
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Over the past decades, the occurrence of floods caused by changing climate has been discussed among scientists and the public. While it is possible that general floods are prepared well with developed weather forecasts these days, there are still many people who suffer from the disaster by losing their lives and properties. Among the several types of floods, a flash flood especially in smaller, ungauged creeks is unpredictable; so there is a growing need to understand, prepare and mitigate the damage of extreme floods. This research attempts to make a helpful result for creating a suitable flood prevention policy. When flash floods occur, finding out the quantity of runoff is much more important than knowing just the amount of rainfall. This is because the volume of runoff varies depending on the characteristic of the watershed, and it directly influences the magnitude of the flood. To obtain the reasonable runoff information, a hydrologic model called GeoWEPP is utilized in this work to simulate the water balance considering the soil type distribution within a watershed. Among the end products after utilizing GeoWEPP, the Return Period Analysis report for hundred years of simulated scenarios shows the values of daily precipitation, runoff volume and peak runoff rate for various return periods of 2 to 50 years (or 50% to 2% likelihood of occurrence). Then, these values were evaluated by the hydraulic software package HEC-RAS to simulate the flood impact on downstream structures and floodplain reaches. To assess the effects of soil types and spatial distribution when flash floods occur, two cases of flood simulation were compared; one is a non-distributed soil type as default and the other is the actual spatial soil type distribution. The comparison illustrates the importance of soil types in flood simulation research and its potential impact on decision-making.
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