In vitro Biocompatibility evaluation of Biodentine compared to MTA
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Introduction: Iatrogenic defects during endodontic treatment can complicate the treatment and need to be repaired with a biocompatible material allowing healing to occur. Gray ProRoot® MTA has shown high degrees of clinical success with such cases but evolving drawbacks have led to manufacturers compensating for deficiencies. Biodentine claimed to be a dentine replacement material with good biocompatibility. Aim of Study: To evaluate the early biocompatible effects of completely set Biodentine compared to completely set gray ProRoot® MTA on normal human osteoblastic cells from alveolar bone and whether time is a factor affecting the cells' reaction to these materials. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into two phases. The first phase involved: MTT, ALP and TGF-B1 immunoassays for 2 days and the second phase measured the same conditions of MTT and ALP for 2, 5 and 7 days. Biodentine and GMTA mixed according to manufacturers' instructions and molded were allowed to set at 37C in 100% relative humidity for 2 days. Primary human osteoblastic cells were cultured with set materials then assayed according to the time and condition needed for each immunoassay. Readings were taken by a Bio-Rad® micro plate spectrophotometer (Bio-Rad laboratories, NY, USA) and data analyzed using One-way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance followed by the Tukey method. Results: There was a statistical significant reduction in the Biodentine group compared to the GMTA group in TGF-B of phase I, MTT 2 days and ALP 5 days of phase II (p < 0.05). In all other experiments, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of MTA and Biodentine (p > 0.05). Conclusion: There are possible initial negative effects from Biodentine when it is placed in direct contact with human osteoblastic cells; these effects are greater in comparison to those from MTA. Longer periods of incubation, however, indicated a reversal from negative effects of both materials on the cellular behavior without differences between them.