Probing Spin and Spin-Orbit Coupling effects in Narrow-gap Semiconductor Nano-structures by THz Magneto-photoresponse Spectroscopy and Magneto-transport Measurements
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Using the spin degree of freedom in a emergent field Known as Spintronics has motivated scientist in different disciplines including physicist within last 10 years. Due to different interaction mechanisms which affects the physical behavior of spin (eg its state and transport properties) within solid medium (Semiconductors in our case), one needs to distinguish these mechanisms and their importance for making any practical spin based devices. For example the idea of making spin based transistors with electrons being transported within InGaAs and their spin state is being controlled by Rashba type field has been around for around 25 years but injection of spin polarized currents from a source into the channel has not been solved yet. Spin orbit coupling (SOC) is one of the mechanisms which changes the spin state of electrons and avoid the existence of pure spin state as a favorable one from device point of view. SOC could have a different origin depending on material type or structure of device. One method of measuring and quantifying this mechanisms within semiconductor nanostructures is through measuring the parameters known as Lande g-factor. This parameters turns out to be a promising one to probe different effects on electronic band structure including quantum confinement, strain, electric filed, etc. We probe a combination of these effects (SOC, Strain, band mixing, etc) by measuring different g-factor tensor components of narrow gap Zinc blend semiconductor nanostructures which we hope finally serve to the purpose of making reliable spin based devices* (Spintronics). To reach this goal we have developed and implemented THz magneto-Photoresponse spectroscopy in conjunction with magneto-transport measurements at cryogenic temperatures. The samples include InAs and HgTe based Quantum wells as well as InAs based quantum point contact. Our findings clarify the situation where the combination of SOC, Strain, quantum confinements as well as many body electron effect changes different physical parameters of charge carriers (eg m*, g-factor, α, etc) within the channel of transport for specific samples. Specifically the anisotropy of g-factor tensor as well as normal-to-plane component of g-factor tensor enhancement due to exchange many body effects will be discussed in chapter 4 and 5. We hope that our finding open a way for further characterization and investigation of electron properties within narrow gap based nanostructures at the quantum transport regime, including Paramagnetic spin resonance (EPR), and even detection of Majorana Fermion in hybrid superconductors/semiconductors devices.