Exploring the effects of single-sex schooling and math self-efficacy on the gender gap in mathematics achievement: Multilevel analysis of PISA data from South Korea and Hong Kong
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A gender gap in mathematics achievement has been found in many countries. Researchers are trying to find ways to reduce the gap. Single-sex schooling was then discussed, but the results varied. As well as, limited number of studies examined the role of single-sex schooling to the relationship between gender and mathematics achievement. However, math self- efficacy has been confirmed to influence students' mathematics achievement successfully. For capturing the relationship between single-sex schooling and mathematics achievement in South Korea and Hong Kong, also exploring the role of math self-efficacy to the gender difference, PISA 2012 dataset was used in the current study. Hierarchical regression models were used to address the research questions. The results suggest that single sex schooling is not related to mathematics achievement in both South Korea and Hong Kong. Also, single sex schooling does not moderate the relationship between gender and mathematics achievement in both countries. Besides, a significant gender gap in mathematics achievement was found in both countries, after taking into account relevant school level factors. Finally, math self-efficacy mediates the relationship between gender and mathematics achievement in South Korea, but not in Hong Kong.