Nano-calcium sulfate as a local delivery system for antibiotics: Osteoblastic activity and antibiotic release
Fageeh, Hytham N.
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Objectives: To determine the release characteristics of nanocalcium sulfate (nCS) when combined with Doxycycline (DOXY) and Minocycline (MINO) and to test the effect of the composite on human osteoblastic cells with respect to their proliferative and differentiation status. Methods: Experimental groups were labeled either nCS-DOXY or nCS-MINO. Test pellets were suspended in 1ml phosphate buffered saline and whole aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals (0-10 days). The concentration of the released drug was determined by UV-Visible spectroscopy. nCS sample groups were prepared with various stock solutions of (0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/ml) for each antibiotic (n=6 /per group). The viability of osteoblast cells was tested by MTT assay. Measuring of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels was used to test cell differentiation. Results: (DOXY) and (MINO) release from nCS was characterized by an initial burst release (approx.60%) within the first 24hrs. This was followed by sustained release for 7 days. The MTT test showed that higher concentrations of both nCS-DOXY and nCS-MINO (1 and 5 mg/ml) resulted in significant decrease of cell viability, however, only low concentrations of nCS-DOXY (0.05 and 0.1mg/ml) increased cellular viability compared to control ( P <0.05). The total cumulative release percentage was 75.7% and 86.9% for both nCS-DOXY and nCS-MINO. nCS-DOXY groups (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/ml) resulted in higher ALP activity than both nCS-MINO and control by approximately (37%, 40%, 63 % and 77%) respectively ( P <0.05). The antibiotic loaded scaffold also showed substantial antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis. Conclusion: nCS shows potential to be developed into a simultaneous regenerative and antibiotic releasing bone graft material for use in osseous regeneration.