Optimizing nano calcium sulfate with alginate and fibrinogen for improved cellular proliferation, differentiation, and release of growth factors
Alkudmani, Hania Subhi B.
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Objective: To determine the effect of modifying nano calcium sulfate (nCS) and nCS/alginate (nCS/alg) with fibrinogen, on osteoblastic cells proliferation, differentiation, and release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Also, to study the slow release characteristics of nCS and nCS/alg. Methods: Osteoblastic cells were seeded on discs made with nCS, nCS/alg, and those modified by different ratios of fibrinogen. MTT and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (ALP) were carried out for cellular proliferation and differentiation respectively. The discs surface characteristics were observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). nCS and nCS/alg with and without fibrinogen were tested for their release of bFGF at day 4 using ELISA. Lastly, The slow release of bFGF from nCS and nCS/alg was tested, every other day, from day 0 through day 10 using ELISA. Results: Osteoblastic cellular viability did not differ between any of the groups. nCS groups with or without the fibrinogen showed higher cellular differentiation than cells alone (control) or nCS/alg groups with or without the fibrinogen. Also, the different ratios of fibrinogen in nCS and nCS/alg groups had no increased potential for cellular differentiation. Fibrin alone and fibrinogen modified nCS and nCS/alg groups had significantly higher release of bFGF than the non-fibrinogen nCS and nCS/alg, with no significant difference noted between fibrinogen modified nCS, nCS/alg or fibrin alone for the release of bFGF. For the slow release characteristics test, nCS had a gradual release of bFGF that peaked at day 2 and continued to day 10, where nCS/alg released most of the bFGF immediately after loading with low/no release at day 2 through day 10. Conclusion: Fibrinogen is cytocompatible towards osteoblastic cells, and it can be used as a scaffold-modifying factor for the release of growth factors. nCS remains a good bone graft material for cellular proliferation, differentiation and the slow release of growth factors.