Response of Buried Pipelines Subject to Earthquake Effects
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The authors review the behavior of buried pipeline components subjected to permanent ground deformation and wave propagation hazards. Existing methods to quantify pipeline response are also reviewed. Emphasis is given to simplified methods which can be used in the analysis and design of pipeline components. These methods are evaluated through comparison with case histories. The book begins with an overview of seismic hazards and the performance of buried pipelines in past earthquakes. Different forms of permanent ground deformation (surface faulting, lateral spreading, and landslides) are described. The authors also present procedures to quantify and model both the amount and spatial extent of permanent ground deformation. Seismic wave propagation and procedures for estimating ground strain and curvature due to travelling wave effects are reviewed. Failure modes and corresponding failure criteria for buried pipelines are discussed. Commonly used techniques to model the soil pipe interaction in both the longitudinal and transverse directions are discussed. The response of segmented pipelines to permanent ground deformation is presented. The behavior of continuous and segmented pipeline components subject to seismic wave propagation is described. The book concludes with a discussion of current countermeasures to reduce pipeline damage. (Abstract adapted from text).