Evaluation, Prevention and Mitigation of Pounding Effects in Building Structures
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Pounding between inelastic structures is investigated using an energy approach. A comprehensive state of the art review is first presented. The main characteristics of the pounding problem are identified and formulated in terms of energy. A Pseudo Energy Radius concept is introduced to study: (i) the minimum gap size to avoid pounding, (ii) the amplifications due to pounding, and, (iii) the evaluation of different pounding mitigation techniques, including the use of supplemental damping devices and shock absorbers. The formulations presented are then summarized to provide structural engineers with simple design/evaluation procedures to solve pounding problems. Building code considerations for pounding are also reviewed. Critical gap to avoid pounding is usually specified in terms of the sum of the maximum displacements, or as a percentage of the height, or as a fixed quantity, or as a SRSS combination of the response. Making use of the improved correlation coefficient based on the above mentioned Pseudo Energy Radius, the Double Difference Combination rule may be used to calculate the critical gap to avoid pounding. The formulation can be extended to determine more rational critical gap formulations in seismic codes. (Adapted from authors' abstract).